Funding for this research was provided by:
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (U50 OH007548-11)
Received: 20 December 2018
Accepted: 29 April 2019
First Online: 17 June 2019
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The study was considered non-human subjects by the Institutional Review Board at the University of Iowa due to the de-identified nature of the secondary data.
: The data was collected on human beings, however, it was collected as an administrative data by law enforcement at the scene of a crash. The data was pre-existing at the time of this research and the study team did not receive and identifiable information on any individuals and there was no direct contact with people whose data are included in the study. Hence, we could not have possibly taken a consent for publication.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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