Funding for this research was provided by:
Higher Education Funding Council for England (Core)
Received: 4 May 2020
Accepted: 7 August 2020
First Online: 31 August 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: Research approvals were granted in Malawi by the National Health Sciences Research Committee (1805), Mangochi District Health Office Research Committee (26.04.2019) and in the UK by LSTM Research Ethics Committee (30.04.2019). Written informed guardian consent was obtained for each school child before participation in surveys.
: All authors have provided consent for publication of the manuscript.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.