Funding for this research was provided by:
U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (1U10GH000487, 5U01GH000487, 5U01GH002171)
Received: 9 October 2020
Accepted: 22 February 2021
First Online: 4 March 2021
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: This surveillance study was approved by the Uganda National Council of Science and Technology (UNCST), (Ref: HS 1693); the Joint Clinical Research Centre institutional review board/Ethics committee (JCRC IRB), and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Institutional Review Board (CDC IRB) (protocol # 6606.0). Consent to participate in the surveillance was waived by both IRBs (JCRC and CDC) because the surveillance involves no more than minimal risk to the participants. However, IRB-approved written informed consent was obtained for photographs of newborns with birth defects from their mothers or legal guardians.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.