Funding for this research was provided by:
Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (H28-junkankitou-ippan-009)
Received: 11 May 2019
Accepted: 29 August 2019
First Online: 9 September 2019
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: Official permission to use individual data of LSMEP from MHLW was obtained based on Article 33 of the Statistics Act. Data were retrieved in a fully anonymous way. Following the Japanese government’s Ethical Guidelines for Epidemiological Research [CitationRef removed], an ethical review was not required.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.