Funding for this research was provided by:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (5U2GGH000324-02)
Received: 28 October 2019
Accepted: 28 February 2020
First Online: 26 March 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The protocol was approved by the Committee for Human Research at the University of California, San Francisco; the Human Subjects Division at University of Washington; the Human Sciences Research Council Research Ethics Committee in South Africa; the Policy, Planning, Research, Monitoring and Evaluation Committee for the North West Provincial Department of Health; and the CDC’s Center for Global Health, Human Research Protection.Local, trained fieldworkers assessed ability to consent and obtained written informed consent for the survey, HIV rapid testing, and DBS sample collection. Participants who declined HIV rapid testing in their home could provide blood for DBS for laboratory HIV diagnosis (serology: ELISA confirmed with Western blot).
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.